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What are five primary ways in which a company can issue additional shares?

A pro-rata or "rights" issue. May be renounceable or non-renounceable.

A bonus issue or share split (opposite of a share consolidation).

A placement.

A Share Purchase Plan (often in conjunction with a placement to sophisticated investors)

A Dividend reinvestment plan

Employee Share scheme.

Exercise of outstanding options (company-issued options, not exchange traded options)

A scrip takeover of or merger with another company.